Yes, I understand that. I still don’t know why it doesn’t come first. In the charging process, what is the primary and what is the secondary reinforcer? In the charge, you’re just clicking the dog for eating therefore the “treat” is the trick …it seems backwards to me. If you click first then the dog knows that the click means a treat will follow. Why couldn’t you charge the clicker by simply having the dog show a response to its name, or something equally simple.